Motherboard

A motherboard is a main component of personal computers. It is also known as a mainboard, main circuit board, system board etc. In apple’s MAC computer there is logic board is available. mother board is a printed circuit board. Which is made-up of a lots of different types of circuits and each circuits has a particular responsibility to do. This board holds and allows communication between many electronic components of a system like CPU and memory. motherboard contains significant sub-system like chipsets input/output and memory controller and integrated components.

Motherboard means a “mother” of all components attached to it. It has other components like : sound card , video card, network card adapter and variety of other custom components. Mainboard is directly and indirectly connected with each part of personal computer. there are some different types of motherboard are available in the market. Here is some common are used in motherboard like CPU chip, co-processor chip, memory chip, expansion slots, buses , system clock, ROMBIOS , battery ,ports, NIC, SMPS etc.

Motherboard

History

In the old times, the digital computer consists of multiple printed circuit board in a card cage with component connected by a backplane. In very old design copper wires is used in connecting between card connector pins. The CPU memory and other parts are individually printed circuit boards. the ubiquitous 5100 bus of the 1970s is an example of this backplane system. The most popular computers of the 1980s such as apple 2 and IBM PC published schematic diagrams. which permitted rapid reverse engineering on motherboard. many motherboard offers additional performance like CPU overclocking. which helps to speed up computers.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s.  It becomes economical once an increasing number of function into the motherboard. In late 1980s personal computers begins. It includes single ICs capable of supporting a set of low speed peripherals. In the late 1990s many motherboard included consumer grade embedded audio, video, storage and networking function without any need of expansion cards. For higher end system 3D gaming and graphics typically retained only the graphic card as a separate component. It is overclocked too. the most motherboard is designed to use BIOS stored in EEPROM and EPROM which is soldered to a socket on the motherboard to boot an operating system. When we bootup our computer BIOS firmware tests and configures devices like :

Video card

Graphic card

Expansion slot and PCI and PCI Express

Floppy drive

Temperature, voltages, and fan speed for hardware monitoring

Keyboard and mouse

Sound card

NIC , CD-ROM, DVD-ROM

HDD and SDD

Security devices such as fingerprint

USB devices etc

Types of Motherboard

Standard ATX

this motherboard comes with 306*245mm dimensions and can vary with different manufactures. this motherboard offers more expansion slots  like four slots of RAM or two or more PCI slots for dual graphic card. It comes with more USB slots for multiple connectivity.

 

Micro ATX

this motherboard comes with 244*244mm dimensions. This board have less slots as compared to standard ATX board. This motherboard is more suitable for less connectivity or don’t want to upgrade in future. this motherboard can fit in any case which has enough room.

 

Extended ATX

This motherboard is 344*330mm dimensions. This motherboard is designed for both dual CPU and single configuration. It has 8 RAM slots and more PCI express slots for different purpose. This motherboard is mostly work in workstation and server.

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