A hard disk is generally a storage device. we use to store every type of data in this device. Today we are going to learn about hard disks. Hard disk is also known as a hard drive, hard disk, fixed drive, etc. Hard disk is a electro mechanical data storage device. Which stores our data with magnetic rapidly rotating platters. Hard disk is a non-volatile storage. When power turns off the data will not lose. Generally hard disk is in form of a small rectangular box. Earlier In 1956, Hard disk were dominated as secondary storage device for general purpose computers By IBM.

HDDs maintains their position in this modern Era of personal computers and technology. There are a total of 224 companies have produced HDD in large volume but there are most popular brands are Seagate, Toshiba and western digital. The market of HDD is going down because of SSD (solid state drive). SSD is a similarly new technology which works faster than a HDD. As a result the sells of HDD is going down. Also NVME drive which is a small chip but faster than both HDD’s and SSD’s. The primary characteristic of Hard disk is it has more capacity and performance. Nowadays, Maximum 8TB hard drive is available in the market. Where 1TB have storage have 1028 GB means 8 TB= 8224 GB.

History of Hard Disk

The first production of hard disk is made by IBM called 350 disk. This 350 hard disk is a component of the IBM 305 RAMAC system. It was approximately the size of two medium size refrigerators. This 350 hard disk had single arm with two read/write heads. Around 1961 to 1962 IBM invented IBM 1302 disk storage unit which consists one or two modules where each module contains 25 platters. The size of 1301 cabinet is about three home refrigerators placed side by side. This 1301 hard disk stores 21 million eight-bit bytes per module.

Advantage of Hard Disk

Hard disk is non-volatile

Surprisingly available in lower cost of same size of capacity compare to SSD.

Both internal and external hard drives are available in the market.

The life span of HDD is better than compare to SSD.

DIsadvantage of Hard Disk

Speed of HDD is lower as compare to SSD.

Form factor of HDD is bigger and space consuming because of its moving parts.

Generally, HDD consumes too much power.

It makes noise because of moving parts.

Hard Disk

Types of Hard Disk

Parallel ATA (PATA)

This drive is also known as a integrated drive electronics (IDE) or enhance integrated drive electronics (EIDE) drive. This driver is known as a PATA. PATA is developed by western digital in 1986. this drive provides data transfer speed up to 133 MB/s. There are up to four PATA drives can be connects with the motherboard.


Serial ATA (SATA)

This type of drives are most simultaneously use in todays technology. This SATA drive almost support all motherboards and operating systems.  SATA drive usually have two sizes either bigger one is for computer or smaller one is for laptop. This drive can reach the speed of 10000 RPM to increase data transmission. actually mechanical failures are main disadvantages of this drives. SATA provides data transmission rate upto 300 MB/s.


Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

This drive is developed in 1970s by the name of  Shugart Associates System Interface (SASI). It uses 50 pin to connect with the motherboard and other peripherals of the computers. SCSI disks provide speed upto 320 MB/s. It uses standard interface technology which allows to connect 7 to 15 device connect to a single motherboard. This drive is mostly outdated but still can be found in low end computer.


Solid-State Drives (SSD)

SSD is a forefront of storage technology development. this storage drive is composed entirely of memory chips. This drive doesn’t have any rotating or moving parts. the in the SSD is stores in semi conductor chips. the advantages of SSD is it is less power consuming and fastest drive ever. The Disadvantage is only this drive is too much expensive. SSD transfer data at speed of upto 550 MB/s.

Types of Hard Disk


Generally, The data is stored in one or more flat circular disc is called platters. Basically platters contains two main substance calls structure and rigidity.


Power Connectors

Power connecters provide power to the whole hard disk. It will store data permanently. If the power goes out, it will not work but will save all of the previous data. So it’s non-volatile memory storage.



jumper is a small device which generally uses in directly controls the operations of hardware. Although jumper is a small piece of metal and plastic. Which is use to connects hardware with computers.



For read and write data, Actuator arm and Actuator axis is main component. Which is controlled by Actuator.


Actuator Axis and Arm

Actuator axis is give command to move the Actuator arm according to location of data.



Spindle is manage all the platter of hard disk. Which is circulate all disk simultaneously.


Read / Write head

The Read / Write head works as it should. It is attached to the actuator arm and reads and writes data to the disk.


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I'm Harikrushna Sangani, a software engineer and the face behind IT Tutorials Cloud. I'm passionate about all things tech and love sharing my knowledge with you through easy-to-follow tutorials and tips. Join me on IT Tutorials Cloud to level up your coding skills and stay updated on the latest in the tech world. Let's learn together! Harikrushna Sangani